Citations And Acknowledgements

Written Sources

Breeze, David J. Roman Frontiers in Britain. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2007. Print.

This book provided historical context for the frontier regions of Roman Britain, an overview of the Roman campaigns into Scotland, information about Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall, and analysis of modern historical thought on the purpose and reasoning behind the various frontiers in Britain.

Breeze, David J. The Roman Army. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016. Print.

This book provided a short summary of the structure and operation of the Roman army in the field and beyond. It provided some details on armies and marching camps that was useful. Although this book is intended for a popular audience and his little citation, David Breeze seems to be a respected historian in the field and his work did not conflict with other, more academic sources.

Campbell, Brian. The Roman Army, 31 Bc-Ad 337: A Sourcebook. London; New York, N.Y: Routledge, 1994. Print.

This book contained a translation of various quotes from various primary sources on the Roman army. Although I later found more complete translations of the sources I needed, at one point the only translated snippets of the de Munitionibus Castrorum that I had came from this source.

Collins, Rob, Matthew Symonds, and Meike Weber. Roman Military Architecture on the Frontiers: Armies and Their Architecture in Late Antiquity. Havertown, US: Oxbow Books, 2015. ProQuest ebrary. Web.

This book is a compilation of several smaller works by various authors, edited to focus on the study of Roman military architecture during late antiquity and the analysis of the sites of Roman forts from this period. Although the book mainly focuses on the architecture and construction of the buildings, there are several discussions of the placement of forts and changes in fortification strategy that were very useful.

Gilliver, Catherine M. The Roman Art of War: Theory and Practice. A Study of the Roman Military Writers. Order No. 10045626 University of London, University College London (United Kingdom), 1993. Ann Arbor: ProQuest. Web.

This thesis paper was extremely valuable to my research. Firstly, it included a full translation of Pseudo-Hyginus’ de Munitionibus Castrorum that was invaluable to my analysis of ancient sources. It also did a lot of helpful analysis of ancient sources on the Roman army, which helped me put some of the ancient sources I read from in context and learn about some of the other sources that I hadn’t been able to look at.

Goldsworthy, Adrian K. The Complete Roman Army. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2003. Print.

This book was another general overview of the history and structure of the Roman military throughout history. It focused primarily on the army during the early to middle imperial period of Roman history, and provided some good information about marching camps and the army on the march. It seems to be intended for a more general audience, so there was little citation, but Goldsworthy is known to be a respected scholar in the field and his written more academic-focused books that were well-received, so I felt that it was still a trustworthy source.

Goldsworthy, Adrian K. The Roman Army at War: 100 BC-AD 200. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Print.

This book was a more academic approach to the same topic as the previously cited source by this author. This book had more citation and contained similar information, but I did not cite it as I found it later in the research process and the writing was a bit more dry and less quotable when compared to some of my other sources.

Jones, Rebecca H. Roman Camps in Scotland. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 2011. Print.

This book, published by the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland, documents known Roman camps  throughout Scotland. It includes a gazetteer of known Roman camps in the region as well as information about the archaeological evidence for these camps. I used this gazetteer as a cross reference for the data I can get from the Canmore database of archaeological sites in Scotland.

Jones, Rebecca H., and Peter McKeague. “A ‘Stracathro’-Gated Temporary Camp at Raeburnfoot, Dumfriesshire, Scotland.” Britannia, vol. 40, 2009, pp. 123–136., Web.

This paper, written in part by the same author as the gazetteer of Roman camps in Scotland, discusses the process of discovering a Roman temporary camp which had previously been suspected of existing but never actually confirmed. This paper enlightened me on some of the methods used to discover a temporary camp site, including aerial photography and ground surveying techniques.

Maxwell, Gordon S. The Romans in Scotland. Edinburgh: J. Thin, 1989. Print.

Although this book is a bit dated, I still found it to be one of the most comprehensive sources of information on the topic of Roman Scotland. It gave a concise and to-the-point history this period in Scottish history, talked at great length about the Roman army on the march and the marching camp’s role in those events, and gives information on other fortifications in Scotland as well.

Milner, N.P. Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science. Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Press, 2011. Print.

Although this book mostly consisted of a translation of the Epitoma Rei Militaris (which is cited below as a separate source), the author’s preface and information about Vegetius was very helpful. Unfortunately, I was unable to find the copy I originally read when I went back to write footnotes, and as a result I did not reference it in the final version of this project — however, it is still worth mentioning.

Müth, Silke, et al. Ancient Fortifications : A Compendium of Theory and Practice. Oxbow Books, 2015. Fokus Fortifikation Studies. EBSCOhost, Web.

This book provided a great introduction to the study of ancient fortifications, the methods used to study them, and some useful guidelines and best practices for these studies. Although it was not specifically focused on Roman fortifications or temporary fortifications, I found it very useful as an introduction to the academic side of this subject. My only qualm is that about half of the essays collected in the book are written in German (although English abstracts were provided, which was very helpful).

Roth, Jonathan P. The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 B.C.-A.D. 235). Leiden: Brill, 1999. Print.

Although this book did not discuss Roman temporary camps directly in any substantial way, I found the information about the supplies the Roman army needed on the march very useful, especially with regards to the water needs of a Roman army.

Stelten, Leo F. Introduction. Epitoma Rei Militaris. By Flavius Vegetius Renatus. New York: Peter Lang, 1990. Print.

The preface for this translation of the Epitoma Rei Militaris provided useful biographical information about Vegetius and summarized what historians know or are able to infer about him, which helped me put Vegetius’ writing in a better context than if I had simply read a word-for-word translation.

Tacitus, Cornelius. “Agricola.” translated by A.R. Birley. In Tacitus: Agricola and Germany. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 1999. Print.

This biography of Tacitus’ father in law, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, is an important primary source on Roman Britain because Agricola was a governor of Britannia and was likely the first Roman general to attempt to conquer Scotland on a large scale. It is quite clearly biased in favor of Agricola as one might expect, but still provides useful information about Agricola’s campaigns and often matches up with the archaeological evidence.

Talbert, Richard J. A, and Roger S. Bagnall. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2000. Print.

Although I did not directly reference this atlas of the Greek and Roman world, it was a useful book to examine because the data set of Roman roads that I used (see Data Sources below) was based on the Barrington Atlas.

Vegetius Renatus, Flavius. “Epitoma Rei Militaris”. translated by N.P. Milner. In Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science. Liverpool: Liverpool Univ. Press, 2011. Print.

A translated version of the Epitoma Rei Militaris that I did not reference directly due to access issues.

Vegetius Renatus, Flavius. Epitoma Rei Militaris. translated and edited by Leo F. Stelten. New York: Peter Lang, 1990. Print.

A translated version of the Epitoma Rei Militaris, a Roman military manual of sorts written by Vegetius. Although it is from a later period than the temporary camps I am studying and clearly was not written as  a unbiased account of Roman military methods, it is still an important primary source on the Roman military and was useful for my comparison between Roman military maxims and actual camp placement. Milner’s translation (see above) received higher praise in the journal reviews I read, and I would have cited it rather than Stelten’s if possible, but due to access issues I worked mostly off of this translation.

White, Ross. “Excavation at Tollpark Roman Temporary Camp, North Lanarkshire.” Scottish Archaeological Journal, vol. 32, no. 2, 2010, pp. 177–197., Web.

This article from the Scottish Archaeological Journal summarizes the findings resulting from the excavation of a ditch believed to have been part of a Roman temporary camp in Scotland. This fortification is also listed in Jones’ gazetteer as a known Roman camp and this excavation summary provides a good deal of information on the methods used to discover and analyze remains found at the sites of temporary Roman camps.

Data Sources

  • CGIAR-CSI Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 90m Digital Elevation Model
    • Jarvis, A., et. al. 2008. “Hole-filled seamless SRTM data V4”, International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
    • Available from here.
  • OS Boundary-Line
    • Product provided by the British Ordnance Survey.
    • Available from here.
  • OS Open Rivers
    • Product provided by the British Ordnance Survey
    • Available from here.
  • Roman Road Network
    • McCormick, M. et al. 2013. “Roman Road Network (version 2008),” DARMC Scholarly Data Series, Data Contribution Series #2013-5. DARMC, Center for Geographic Analysis, Harvard University, Cambridge MA 02138.
    • Available from here.


  • Thanks to Amanda Tickner, GIS Librarian at Michigan State University, for helping me familiarize myself with ArcGIS and providing crucial advice.
  • Thanks to Brandon Locke and A.L. McMichael, course instructors for the HST 251: Doing Digital History class at Michigan State University that was the impetus for this project, for the help, constructive criticism, and teaching during this semester.
  • Thanks to my HST 251 classmates, for providing feedback and making this course even more enjoyable than it was.
  • Thanks to my grandparents, Pat and Terry, my father Tony, and all of the other people who helped grow and foster my interest in history over the years.Without them buying me history books and letting me consume history documentaries at a near-alarming rate when I was little, I might not have have had the inspiration to take this course or complete a project like this.
  • Thanks to the creators of the Getty Museum’s Legacy of Ancient Palmyra online exhibit for a LOT of inspiration on the design and layout of the site.

Author Information

Jacob Cousineau – Computer Science Student @ Michigan State University – @cousi2344 on Twitter.